In the past 10 years there has been a keen interest by industry towards the application of rapid prototyping methods in product development. By extending this interest to new fabrication methods such as 3D printing technologies, industry is intent on adopting new pathways in order to redefine its future. To chart these pathways, practice based testing of 3D printing technologies is becoming a strategic activity in a growing number of industrial establishments. Some of the tests reveal data which has given industry the confidence to engage 3D printing technology as a rapid manufacturing tool. The ability to stably process metals, composites as well as high performance polymer materials using additive manufacturing tools opens a unique opportunity for industry to do new things in the field of manufacturing. Particularly within the past 5 years fiber reinforced polymers as well as high to extreme temperature polymers such as PEEK (Figure A) have received special attention in a range of industries for different kinds of reasons. Some of these reasons border on energy conservation, light-weight construction, thermo-mechanical performance, biocompatibility, chemical inertness or on electrical properties. Therefore materials are at the core of the situation pulling industry towards additive manufacturing. Polymers are without doubt the only class of materials that can be easily processed at relatively low energy cost, composited using different kinds of other materials and used to meet different kinds of requirements in engineering and technological applications. For this reason there is a need to intensively explore the processibility of polymeric materials using additive manufacturing tools.